ñàéò: Ìîñòû öåíòðàëüíîãî Ëîíäîíà
ðàçäåë: Òàóýðñêèé ìîñò
Tower Bridge | London Bridge | Cannon Street Railway Bridge | Southwark Bridge | Millennium Bridge | Blackfriars Railway Bridge | Blackfriars Bridge | Waterloo Bridge | Hungerford Bridge | Westminster Bridge | Lambeth Bridge | Vauxhall Bridge












Òàóýðñêèé ìîñò ::: Tower Bridge

Òàóýðñêèé ìîñò - ñàìûé çíàìåíèòûé ìîñò Ëîíäîíà, ÿâëÿþùèéñÿ îäíèì èç ñèìâîëîâ ãîðîäà. Îí èìååò íåîáû÷íûé, ëåãêî çàïîìèíàþùèéñÿ è óçíàâàåìûé âíåøíèé âèä: íà ìàññèâíûõ ðå÷íûõ îïîðàõ ñòîÿò äâå ãîòè÷åñêèå áàøíè, ñîåäèí¸ííûå ðàçâîäíûìè ïðîë¸òàìè è äâóìÿ âûñîòíûìè ïåøåõîäíûìè ãàëåðåÿìè. Ìîñò îáëèöîâàí êàìíåì ñâåòëî-ñåðîãî öâåòà, ìåòàëëè÷åñêèå êîíñòðóêöèè åãî âûêðàøåíû â áåëûé, ñèíèé è êðàñíûé öâåòà (êðàñíîãî öâåòà â ýêñòåðüåðå ìîñòà ìåíüøå âñåãî, ïîýòîìó îí íåçàìåòåí èçäàëåêà, â ÷àñòíîñòè íà ôîòîãðàôèÿõ ìîñòà îáùèì ïëàíîì) - ýòî öâåòà ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ôëàãà Îáúåäèí¸ííîãî Êîðîëåâñòà, Union Jack'à. Òàêèì ìîñò ñòàë â 1977 ãîäó (äî ýòîãî, ñ ìîìåíòà ñâîåãî îòêðûòèÿ, îí âåñü áûë øîêîëàäíîãî öâåòà), è ïåðåêðàñèëè åãî â ÷åñòü þáèëåÿ êîðîëåâû Åëèçàâåòû II (â 1976 ãîäó åé èñïîëíèëîñü 50 ëåò).  2008 ãîäó áûëî îáúÿâëåíî î íà÷àëå 4õ-ëåòíåãî êîñìåòè÷åñêîãî ðåìîíòà ìîñòà, â õîäå êîòîðîãî ñ íåãî ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ñíÿòü ñòàðóþ êðàñêó è çàíîâî âûêðàñèòü ìîñò â áåëî-ñèíèé öâåò.

Îò âñåõ îñòàëüíûõ ëîíäîíñêèõ ìîñòîâ è âîîáùå âñåõ ìîñòîâ ÷åðåç Òåìçó Òàóýðñêèé ìîñò îòëè÷àåòñÿ ñëåäóþùèì: ýòî ñàìûé íèçêî ðàñïîëîæåííûé â òå÷åíèè Òåìçû ìîñò (îí ïåðâûì âñòðå÷àåòñÿ, åñëè ïîäíèìàòüñÿ ïî íåé èç Ñåâåðíîãî ìîðÿ) è ýòî åäèíñòâåííûé èç âñåõ ìîñòîâ, êîòîðûé ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðàçâîäíûì.

íàçâàíèå

Ñâî¸ íàçâàíèå ìîñò ïîëó÷èë áëàãîäàðÿ ñîñåäñòâó ñ Òàóýðîì: ñåâåðíûé êîíåö ìîñòà ðàñïîëàãàåòñÿ îêîëî þãî-âîñòî÷íîãî óãëà Òàóýðà; ïàðàëëåëüíî âîñòî÷íîé ñòåíå Òàóýðà èä¸ò äîðîãà, ÿâëÿþùàÿñÿ ïðîäîëæåíèåì Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà.

ñîñåäíèå äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòè

Åñëè ñòîÿòü íà ìîñòó ëèöîì íà çàïàä, ò.å. â íàïðàâëåíèè ïðîòèâ òå÷åíèÿ Òåìçû, òî áóäóò âèäíû: Åñëè æå âñòàòü ëèöîì íà âîñòîê, òî áóäóò âèäíû: èñòîðèÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà

Ðåøåíèå î ñòðîèòåëüñòâå ìîñòà áûëî ïðèíÿòî â ñâÿçè ñ òåì, ÷òî âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå 19 âåêà ñòàë ðàçâèâàòüñÿ âîñòî÷íûé ðàéîí Ëîíäîíà - Èñò-Ýíä è æèòåëÿì åãî ñòàëî íåóäîáíî ïåðåáèðàòüñÿ (ïåøêîì è íà òðàíñïîðòå) íà äðóãîé áåðåã ðåêè ïî áëèæàéøåìó ê íèì Ëîíäîíñêîìó ìîñòó. Ïîñòðîåííûé â 1870 ãîäó òóííåëü ïîä Òåìçîé Tower Subway ïðåäíàçíà÷àëñÿ ëèøü äëÿ ïåøåõîäîâ (ïðàâäà çàäóìûâàëñÿ îí è èñïîëüçîâàëñÿ ïîíà÷àëó êàê òîííåëü ìåòðî) è ðåøèë ïðîáëåìó ëèøü ÷àñòè÷íî.  1876 ñïåöèàëüíî ñîçäàííûé êîìèòåò ïðèíÿë ðåøåíèå ñòðîèòü íîâûé ìîñò âîñòî÷íåå Ëîíäîíñêîãî. Ìîñò äîëæåí áûë áûòü ðàçâîäíîé, ÷òîáû ïðîïóñêàòü áîëüøèå êîðàáëè â Ëîíäîíñêèé Ïóë. Áûë îáúÿâëåí êîíêóðñ ïðîåêòîâ, èç ïîëñîòíè êîòîðûõ ïîáåäèë ïðîåêò Ãîðàöå Äæîíñà. Ñëó÷èëîñü ýòî ëèøü â 1884 ãîäó. Ñòðîèòåëüñòâî ìîñòà íà÷àëîñü ëåòîì 1886 ãîäà è áûëî çàêîí÷åíî ñïóñòÿ 8 ëåò. Òîðæåñòâåííîå îòêðûòèå íîâîãî ìîñòà ñîñòîÿëîñü 30 èþíÿ 1894 ãîäà Ïðèíöåì Óýëüñêèì Ýäóàðäîì è åãî ñóïðóãîé ïðèíöåññîé Àëåêñàíäðîé.

êîíñòðóêöèÿ è ôóíêöèîíèðîâàíèå

Îñîáåííîñòÿìè êîíñòðóêöèè äàííîãî ìîñòà, äåëàþùèìè åãî óíèêàëüíûì ñðåäè îñòàëüíûõ ìîñòîâ ÷åðåç Òåìçó, ñòàëè ðàçâîäíûå ïðîë¸òû è âûñîòíûå ïåøåõîäíûå ãàëåðåè.

Ðàçâîäíûå ôåðìû ìîñòà ïîäíèìàåò ðàñïîëîæåííûé â îñíîâàíèè áàøåí ãèäðàâëè÷åñêèé ìåõàíèçì. Ïîíà÷àëó åãî äâèãàòåëè áûëè ïàðîâûìè - ñæèãàíèåì â òîïêàõ êàìåííîãî óãëÿ ïðèâîäèëèñü â ðàáîòó íàñîñû, êîòîðûå çàêà÷èâàëè âîäó â îãðîìíûå ðåçåðâóàðû, òåì ñàìûì çàïàñàÿ ýíåðãèþ. Êîãäà íóæíî áûëî ìîñò ðàçâåñòè, ýòî äåëàëîñü î÷åíü ëåãêî - ôàêòè÷åñêè ïîâîðîòîì êðàíà. Ïîñòóïàþùàÿ ïðè ýòîì èç ðåçåðâóàðà ïî òðóáàì âîäà âðàùàëà øåñòåð¸íêè, êîòîðûå è ïîäíèìàëè ôåðìû ìîñòà. Çàòðà÷èâàìûå ïðè ýòîì óñèëèÿ ìèíèìèçèðîâàëèñü åù¸ è òåì, ÷òî íà êîíöàõ ôåðì áûëè ðàñïîëîæåíû òÿæ¸ëûå ïðîòèâîâåñû.  èòîãå ìîñò ðàçâîäèëñÿ âñåãî çà ïàðó ìèíóò, ôåðìû åãî ïðè ýòîì ïîäíèìàëèñü íà 86 ãðàäóñîâ, ò.å. âñòàâàëè ïî÷òè âåðòèêàëüíî. Ãèäðàâëè÷åñêèé ìåõàíèçì ïðèâîäèë òàêæå â äåéñòâèå ëèôòû, ïîäíèìàþùèå ïåøåõîäîâ íà âûñîòíûå ãàëåðåè, ñèãíàëû, óïðàâëÿþùèå äâèæåíèåì ïî ìîñòó, è íåáîëüøîé êðàí äëÿ ðàçãðóçêè óãëÿ ñ áàðæ (äëÿ ðàáîòû ñàìîãî ìåõàíèçìà òðåáîâàëîñü äî 20 òîíí óãëÿ â íåäåëþ). Ãèäðàâëè÷åñêèé ìåõàíèçì ìîã òàêæå â àâàðèéíûõ ñèòóàöèÿõ çàáèðàòü ýíåðãèþ îò êîëüöåâîãî ìàãèñòðàëüíîãî òðóáîïðîâîäà Ëîíäîíñêîé Ãèäðîýíåðãåòè÷åñêîé êîìïàíèè.  1976 ãîäó ãèäðàâëè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìà, èçíà÷àëüíî âîäÿíàÿ, ñòàëà ìàñëÿíîé è áûëà ýëåêòðèôèöèðîâàíà.

Ìîñò ðàçâîäèëñÿ íå ïî ãðàôèêó, à êàæäûé ðàç, êîãäà ïîä íèì íóæíî áûëî ïðîéòè êîðàáëþ.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ãðàôèê ñóùåñòâóåò, íî îí íå ðåãóëÿðíûé - ñîñòàâëÿåòñÿ íà íåñêîëüêî ìåñÿöåâ âïåð¸ä ïî çàÿâêàì áîëüøèõ êîðàáëåé, êîòîðûå äîëæíû ïðîéòè ïîä ìîñòîì â Ëîíäîíñêèé Ïóë èëè îáðàòíî. Ãðàôèê ìîæíî óçíàòü íà îôèöèàëüíîì ñàéòå Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà èëè âíóòðè ìîñòà, íà ñïåöèàëüíîé äîñêå, íà êîòîðîé äàòà è âðåìÿ ïèøóòñÿ ìåëîì.

Ïåøåõîäíûå ãàëåðåè áûëè çàäóìàíû äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ïåøåõîäíîå äâèæåíèå ïî ìîñòó íå ïðåêðàùàëîñü äàæå âî âðåìÿ ïîäíÿòèÿ ïðîë¸òîâ. Âûñîòà ãàëåðåé (45 ìåòðîâ íàä âîäîé) ïîçâîëÿëà ïðîõîäèòü ïîä íèìè êîðàáëÿì. Íàâåðõ ëþäè ïîäíèìàëèñü ïî âèíòîâûì ëåñòíèöàì è íà ëèôòàõ, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ âíóòðè áàøåí. Âìåñòèìîñòü êàæäîãî ëèôòà ñîñòàâëÿåò ìàêñèìóì 40 ÷åëîâåê.  êàæäîé áàøíå íàõîäÿòñÿ ïî äâà ëèôòà - îäèí äëÿ ïîäú¸ìà, äðóãîé äëÿ ñïóñêà. Óæå â 1910 ãîäó ãàëåðåè áûëè çàêðûòû ðåøåíèåì Ïàðëàìåíòà, ò.ê. ñäåëàëèñü ïðèáåæèùåì ïðîñòèòóòîê è êàðìàííèêîâ. Ïåøåõîäû æå íå îñîáî ñòðåìèëèñü ïîäíÿòüñÿ íà ýòè ãàëåðåè, ïåðäïî÷èòàÿ ïîäîæäàòü, ïîêà ìîñò ðàçâåä¸òñÿ è ñâåä¸òñÿ - áëàãî, ÷òî ýòè ïðîöåññû çàíèìàëè âìåñòå âñåãî íåñêîëüêî ìèíóò. Ñ 1982 ãîäà ãàëåðåè âíîâü îòêðûòû - íî óæå êàê ÷àñòü Ìóçåÿ ìîñòà è ñìîòðîâàÿ ïëîùàäêà (âõîä ïëàòíûé).

Âíóòðè ìîñòà íàõîäèòñÿ ìóçåé, ïîñâÿù¸ííûé åãî èñòîðèè.  í¸ì ìîæíî óâèäåòü íàñòîÿùèå, íî íå äåéñòâóþùèå ñåé÷àñ ìåõàíèçìû, óïðàâëÿþùèå äâèæåíèåì ïðîë¸òîâ.

èíòåðåñíûå ôàêòû

 1912 ãîäó íåêîåìó Ôðýíêó ÌàêÊëèíó ïðèøëîñü ïðîëåòåòü ìåæäó ïðîë¸òàìè è ïåøåõîäíûìè ãàëåðåÿìè ìîñòà íà ñâî¸ì áèïëàíå, ÷òîáû èçáåæàòü íåñ÷àñòíîãî ñëó÷àÿ.

 1952 ãîäó àâòîáóñ, èäóùèé ïî ìîñòó, áûë âûíóæäåí ñîâåðøèòü ïðûæîê ñ îäíîãî ïðîë¸òà íà äðóãîé, êîãäà òå ñòàëè íåîæèäàííî ðàçâîäèòüñÿ.

íîâîñòè

ëåòî 2008 ãîäà
Íà÷àëñÿ ðàññ÷èòàííûé íà 4 ãîäà êîñìåòè÷åñêèé ðåìîíò Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà. Êàê ÷àñòü åãî çàïëàíèðîâàíà ïåðåêðàñêà ìîñòà - ñ íåãî ñíèìóò ñòàðóþ êðàñêó è âûêðàñÿò çàíîâî â ñèíèé è áåëûé öâåòà. ×òîáû ñòàðàÿ êðàñêà íå ïàäàëà â Òåìçó, ëåñà, âîçâîäèìûå âîêðóã ðåñòàâðèðóåìîé â äàííûé ìîìåíò ñåêöèè ìîñòà, áóäóò çàêðûòû ñíàðóæè ñïåöèàëüíîé òêàíüþ. Äî 2010 ãîäà ìîñò áóäåò ôóíêöèîíèðîâàòü, ïîòîì åãî ïðèä¸òñÿ çàêðûòü íà íåñêîëüêî ìåñÿöåâ.

11 ìàÿ 2009 ãîäà
Ñ âûñîòû îêîëî 3 ìåòðîâ ñîðâàëñÿ â øàõòó ëèôò â ñåâåðíîé áàøíå Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà, ïîäíèìàâøèé ëþäåé íà âûñîòíûå ãàëåðåè. Ñ ðàçëè÷íûìè òðàâìàìè íèæíèõ êîíå÷íîñòåé áûëè ãîñïèòàëèçèðîâàíû 6 ÷åëîâåê.

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ÑÑÛËÊÈ
(âñ¸ íà àíãë. ÿçûêå)

Îôèöèàëüíûé ñàéò Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà
http

Ñàéò, ïîñâÿù¸ííûé èäóùåìó â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ðåìîíòó Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà. Ôîòî è âèäåî âûïîëíåííûõ ðàáîò
http

Âèäåîñþæåò ïðî Òàóýðñêèé ìîñò è äîêè Ñâ. Êàòåðèíû, ìíîãî ñú¸ìîê íà ñàìîì ìîñòó
video mp4, 6 ìèí., 124 ìá (HQ)

Íåáîëüøîé ðîëèê ïðî Òàóýðñêèé ìîñò
video wmv, 3 ìèí., 6 ìá

Åù¸ îäèí íåáîëüøîé âèäåîðîëèê
video mp4, 3 ìèí., 6 ìá

Íà÷àëüíûé ýïèçîä èç ôèëüìà Àëüôðåäà Õè÷êîêà "Èññòóïëåíèå", ïðåäñòàâëåííûé ïàíîðàìîé Òåìçû è ðàçâîäÿùåãîñÿ Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà (ñú¸ìêè ñ âåðòîë¸òà)
video mp4, 3 ìèí., 9 ìá

Âèäåî ðàçâåäåíèÿ è ñâåäåíèÿ ìîñòà. Îáðàòèòå âíèìàíèå, ÷òî, åñëè íåò íåîáõîäèìîñòè, ôåðìû ìîñòà ðàçâîäÿòñÿ íå ïîëíîñòüþ (íå âñòàþò âåðòèêàëüíî) - ëèøü íà ñòîëüêî, ñêîëüêî íóæíî, ÷òîáû ìîã ïðîéòè êîðàáëü
YouTube

Ïðîõîä ïîä ìîñòîì áîëüøîãî êîðàáëÿ - îäèí èç ðîëèêîâ, äåìîíñòðèðóåìûõ íà ñïåöèàëüíûõ âèäåîýêðàíàõ âíóòðè Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà, â ìóçåå åãî èñòîðèè
YouTube

Êðóãîâûå ïàíîðàìû ìîñòà è îêðåñòíîñòåé
mov (3 ôàéëà â îäíîì àðõèâå), 2 ìá


 òèï ìîñòà:
 âèñÿ÷èé, ðàçâîäíîé; ìåòàëëè÷åñêèé ñ êàìåííîé îáëèöîâêîé
 êîëè÷åñòâî îïîð: 2
 íàçíà÷åíèå: àâòîìîáèëüíûé, ïåøåõîäíûé
 ãîä îòêðûòèÿ: 1894

ÔÎÒÎ (êëèêàáåëüíî)
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Ñòðîèòåëüñòâî ìîñòà


Ôîòîãðàôèÿ êîíöà 19 âåêà. Ìîñò âûêðàøåí â øîêîëàäíûé öâåò. Ôîòî ñ ñàéòà HistoGrafica


Ôîòîãðàôèÿ êîíöà 19 âåêà. Ìîñò â ïðîöåññå ðàçâåäåíèÿ ïðîë¸òîâ. Ôîòî ñ ñàéòà HistoGrafica


Ñîâðåìåííàÿ îêðàñêà ìîñòà (íà ôîòî â ïîëíîì ðàçðåøåíèè ìîæíî óâèäåòü è êðàñíûé öâåò :-) Íà âúåçäå íà ìîñò âèäíà àðêà - ýëåìåíò äèçàéíà ìîñòà, ãàðìîíèðóþùèé ñ áàøíÿìè.


Àíôàñ :-)


Ïðè ïîëíîì ðàçâåäåíèè ïðîë¸òû ìîñòà âñòàþò ïî÷òè âåðòèêàëüíî.


Âèä íà îäíó èç áàøåí è âûñîòíûå ïåøåõîäíûå ãàëåðåè.
Ôîòî ñ ñàéòà WikiMedia



Ïîäúåçä ê ìîñòó.
Âèä c ñåâåðíîé ñòîðîíû (îò ñòåíû Òàóýðà).


Âèä ñ âîçäóõà. Âèäåí ñîñåäíèé ñ Òàóýðñêèì Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò, êðåéñåð Áåëôàñò, Òàóýð.
Ôîòî ñ ñàéòà WikiMedia


Ìîñò íî÷üþ.


Âíóòðè âûñîòíîé ïåøåõîäíîé ãàëåðåè.


Âíóòðè Òàóýðñêîãî ìîñòà, â ìóçåå åãî èñòîðèè. Îäèí èç ïàðû íåäåéñòâóþùèõ â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïàðîâûõ äâèãàòåëåé. Ôîòî ñ ñàéòà WikiMedia


×àñòü ìîñòà îêóòàíà ëåñàìè - èä¸ò êîñìåòè÷åñêèé ðåìîíò ìîñòà. 2008 ãîä



Ìîñò ïåðåêðàøèâàþò. Öâåòà äåéñòâèòåëüíî ñòàëè ÿð÷å :-) 2009 ãîä



ðåêëaìa


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